Fact sheet of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh
Jammu & Kashmir is an integral part of India. Its accession to India in 1947 was legal and is irrevocable.
- The then ruler of J&K acceded to India by signing an instrument of accession on 26 October 1947 and unconditionally accepted by the then Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten. It was completely valid in terms of the Government of India Act (1935), Indian Independence Act (1947) and international law and was total and irrevocable. It was a similar instrument that was signed by 542 princely states that joined India after Independence.
- Preamble and Article 3 of the Constitution of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, that was framed by a Constituent Assembly elected by the people of Jammu & Kashmir and adopted in 1956, states that "the State is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India."
J&K and Ladakh is ethnically, religiously and geographically diverse state.
- J&K has 2 regions- Jammu and Kashmir with 20 Districts level administrative units. Ladakh has 2 district level administrative units.
- It is a pluralistic and secular society with good mix of Muslims (68.31%), Hindus (28.44%), Sikhs (1.87%), Buddhists (0.9%), Christians (0.28%) populations.
The people of J&K have time and again expressed their democratic choice. Focus is on devolution of power to grassroot level.
- The people of J&K have elected their Government through regular elections to the State Assembly 11 times. In 2014, the turnout in Assembly elections was over 65%.
- People of J&K have also exercised their democratic rights 13 times for elections to the National Parliament; (Recent election to 6 Parliamentary Constituencies were held in April-May 2019 with around 40% of the voters exercising their democratic rights.
- To strengthen grass root democracy, 29 subjects including primary health, primary education, nutrition etc have been devolved to local bodies, enabling them to address most of the local issues in their jurisdiction. Their financial powers have been enhanced 10 times and they have also been given powers for ‘own fund generation’. Central grant of approx USD 650 million (Rs 4,335 crores) under the 14th Finance Commission have been made directly available to the local bodies.
- So far, 5 Urban Local Body elections and 3 Rural Local Body elections have also been held. Elections to 79 Urban Local Bodies were held in October 2018. 3372 candidates contested these elections and 35% voters cast their votes.
- Elections to 4500 Panchayats (local bodies at village level) were held in November –December 2018 in 9 phases. Around 74% (Jammu (83.5%); Kashmir valley (41.3%); and Ladakh (67.8%) voters of the 5.9 million voters exercised their democratic right. More than 25000 candidates contested the election for 4490 Sarpanch.
- Elections for Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council Kargil (LAHDC) were held in 2018 and for LAHDC-Leh in 2015 with electoral participation of 70% and 66% respectively.
The Union Government and the state Government have focused on the development and empowerment of the people of the state of J&K.
- Special Assistance Package of nearly US$ 12 billion (Rs. 80,068 crores) announced by the Prime Minister for J&K has been fast tracked. Of this package, around USD 10 billion (82%) have been sanctioned and USD 4.5 billion released. Of the 63 development projects in the areas of roads, power, new and renewable energy, tourism, health, education, water resources, sports, urban development, textiles, 14 have been completed and others are at various stages of implementation.
- New Infrastructure projects have been inaugurated. These include Chenani- Nashri tunnel (April 2017) which enhanced intra-state connectivity and significantly reduced travel distance and time between Jammu and the Kashmir valley; 330 MW Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant (May 2018). Work has been commenced on the Zojila Tunnel which would provide all weather connectivity to the Ladakh region; 105 kms of roads; development of power distribution system in; two solar power projects of 20 MW each in Leh and Kargil; development of urban infrastructure, including smart cities.
- Special Industry Initiative ‘UDAAN’ is being implemented by the National Skill Development Corporation in Public Private Partnership mode. It is providing skills and enhancing the employability of youth who are graduate, post graduate or three year engineering diploma holders., Over 44,000 candidates joined, around 39,00 have successfully completed training of whom 21500 have been offered jobs.
- HIMAYAT -: This is a placement linked skill training programme for unemployed youth of J&K at an outlay of Rs 1581 crores (Around USD 230 million). Under this, during the first phase, 74,227 youths were imparted skills training and 56,823 youths placed. Under the ongoing second phase, 4494 youths have been trained and 1903 youths provided employment till March 2019.
- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) [Skill development Programme] This is a skill development programme targeted at students in J&K. Under Phase I, more than 1.9 million students have been imparted skill training. Under Phase II, as of end April 2019, more than 110,000 students have been trained and around 30,000 placed.
- Prime Minister’s Special Scholarship Scheme (PMSSS): Under this programme, annually 5000 special scholarships are provided to students from J&K to pursue undergraduate studies in educational institutions outside the State of J&K. As of end April 2019, 18,842 students from J&K have benefited from this scholarship scheme.
- Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA): Under this programme tailored for women of J&K affected by terrorism, towards their financial empowerment, a Centre has a established in Kupwara for imparting training and setting up Self Help Group. 883 Master Trainers and 4780 women have been trained in various income generating activities like food processing, crafts, weaving, tailoring etc. Two more centres are being set up in Ganderbal and Leh with a Sub centre in Kargil at a budget of USD 0.5 million (Rs.3.05 crores).
- Education sector development include greater participation in school education system has been witnessed. In 2016, a total of more than 100,000 students appeared for class X examination of J&K State Board and this increased to nearly 120,000 students in 2017. Similarly, for class XII the figures stood at about 94,000 in 2016 and about 93,000 in 2017. Around 12515 students cleared National Level Medical Entrance Exam in 2018 and 15 candidates had cleared Union Public Service Examination in 2018 to become Civil Servants in India.
- J&K has a literacy rate of 68% (against a national average of 74%). It has 1.3 million and 1 million students respectively enrolled in 23,819 government schools and 5,516 private schools respectively.
||Number of Schools
|Higher Secondary School
- For promoting Higher Education, two premier AIIMS like medical institutions, Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Jammu have been set up over the past 2 years. There are 96 colleges including 12 Women Colleges. Around 170,000 students are enrolled in these colleges. Two Central Universities and seven other Universities are also functioning in the state.
- In the field of Health, J&K has 20 district hospital (Ladakh has 2 district hospitals), 88 sub-district hospital, 406 Primary Health Centre, 597New Type Primary Health Centres, 2847 Sub Centres and 557 Sub Centres of Indian System of Medicine. Two premier AIIMS like Medical institutes (one in Awantipora in Pulwama district and other in Samba) are being set up. Government has approved five new Medical Colleges in Baramullah, Anantnag, Kathua, Rajouri and Doda. Unani Medical College in Ganderbal, Srinagar is in advance stage of completion. These 3200 health centres and hospitals are providing health care to the people of J&K and Ladakh. In 2017, J&K was ranked first among Indian States in terms of reducing infant mortality rate as it dropped by 8% in a single year. J&K is also among the top three States in terms of annual incremental performance in health scheme.
- The overall tele-density is 108.63% in Jammu and Kashmir, with over 10 million telephone subscribers (both landline and mobile telephone) in J&K, which is better than the national average; and mobile subscription has grown at rate of around 5% per month indicating vibrant telecommunication connectivity.
- There are over 3.5 million active internet users in the state, with free use of twitter, facebook and other social media platforms.
- Over the 15 year period (2004-2019), J&K has received 10% of Central Grants, amounting to 2.77 lakh crores (around USD 40 billion) despite having only 1% of the population of India.
- Tourist inflow to Jammu and Kashmir has been steady and increasing. In 2017, the number of tourists that visited J&K were over 1.2 million. Amarnath Yatra was successfully concluded with over 2.85 lakh pilgrims participating in the pilgrimage.
- In sports, local Football Club “Real Kashmir” has emerged regional champions and qualified to the Premier National Football League.
- Under the Right to Information Act and Public Services Guarantee Act in Jammu and Kashmir, thousands of requests for information made to Public Information Officers have been complied while under the Public Services Guarantee Act and statutory delivery of nearly 80 services is ensured. These include services like land/revenue records, marriage certificates, permanent residence certificates and birth/death certificates.
J&K has impartial, free, fair and independent judiciary and institutions for the promotion and protection of rights.
- There are 20 District Courts and 1 High Court in Jammu and Kashmir, while there are 2 District courts in Ladakh. There are 1main-74 subordinate courts in J&K and Ladakh. The decision of the High Court can be appealed in the Supreme Court of India.
- J&K State Human Rights Commission is an independent and autonomous body established by an Act passed by the State Legislature in 1997. It receives grievances from anyone who has been or is a victim of any violations of Human Rights by any of the State Agencies; Government and semi-government organizations /Institutions; or Private or government undertakings. Cases pertaining to custodial deaths, alleged killing of civilians by Army and Paramilitary forces during security related operations, alleged use of pellet guns and pepper gas on protesters, rights of jail inmates, distribution of government services are taken up by SHRC. As of November 2018, 8381 cases have been taken up by the commission of which 7,616 have been completed.
- Free and vibrant media in Jammu and Kashmir consists of more than 90 dailies and periodicals, in addition to local cable networks and a plethora of news portals.
Monthly cash relief to Kashmiri migrants in J&K
- Due to onset of cross-border terrorism in early 1990, most of Kashmiri Pandits and Sikhs migrated from Kashmir Valley to Jammu, Delhi and other parts of India. At present, 41,248 registered migrant families are living in Jammu, 19,338 families living in Delhi and 1995 families in other parts of the country.
- A cash relief of Rs 3250 per person monthly subject to a ceiling of Rs 13000 (approx USD 200) per family per month is provided to Kashmir migrants settled in Jammu and Delhi.
Jobs to Kashmiri migrants
- 3000 state government jobs were approved for Kashmiri migrants under PM Relief Package in 2008. An additional 3000 state government jobs were sanctioned for Kashmir migrants under PM Developmental Package in 2015.
- Under PM Developmental Package, construction of 6000 transit accommodation for Kashmir migrants at a cost of Rs 920 crores (USD 130 million) have been approved. Presently 608 Transit Accommodations are under various stages of construction, with some completed.
- Rehabilitation of displaced persons from PoJK and Chhamb
- A one time payment of Rs.5.5 lakhs (USD 8000) per family has been disbursed to 25,371 families, as of end April 2019, (of the target 36,384 Kashmiri families) displaced from territories under Pakistan occupation. Disbursal to the remaining families in progress
- Efforts to mitigate suffering of population affected by cross-border firing
- Government of India has sanctioned construction of 14,460 bunkers (13,029 individual bunkers and 1,431 community bunkers) in the five border districts of Samba, Jammu, Kathua, Poonch, Rajouri.
In contrast to those living on the Indian side of J&K, the people of the Pakistan occupied territory of Jammu and Kashmir are being denied basic political civil and economic rights.
- The local politicians and representatives lack authority and are deprived of any financial decision making as the central control rests with Islamabad. The so called “Gilgit- Baltistan” even lack constitutional identity.
- These people in these occupied areas suffer from poverty, underdevelopment, forcible deprivation of land, persecution and violence at the hands of armed forces.
- There the voice of media has been muzzled.
- The so called “President” and “Prime Minister” of Pakistan occupied Jammu and Kashmir are Pakistan Government officials and appointed by the Government of Pakistan and have no locus standi. They are renegade entities who are sent abroad to engage and preach propaganda.
India has taken the initiative to facilitate exchanges between the people living across the Line of Control (LoC).
- India took the initiative to establish cross LoC bus services between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad in 2005; cross LoC/ border movement of people through additional 4 crossing points in 2005; and establishment of cross LoC trade in 2008. These are aimed at promoting exchanges and local trade between the people on both sides of the LoC, including divided families.
- Pakistan has been attempting to misuse these humanitarian initiatives to open new routes for smuggling of narcotics and arms across LoC. They have also been reluctant is granting permits to residents on the Indian side to visit Pakistan occupied territories. Pakistan has also been imposing restrictions on the cross LoC trade against the wishes of the people of the occupied territories.
The people of J&K face the brunt of state-sponsored cross-border terrorism from Pakistan.
- The basic ‘Right to Life’ of the people of Jammu and Kashmir and their peace, progress and prosperity continue to be affected by this cross-border terrorism.
- Since 1990s, lives of nearly 14000 innocent civilians and over 5000 security personnel have been lost to cross border terrorism in J&K.
- Pakistan supports various terrorist groups like Lashkar–e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed and Hizbul Mujahideen to recruit, train and operationalise its cross border terrorist activities against. There are 18 active terrorist training camps that are functional in Pakistan occupied territories.
- Pakistan openly glorify terrorists and incite unrest and violence. The UN and internationally proscribed terrorist entities and individuals like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Hizbul Mujahideen, Hafiz Saeed, Masood Azhar, Syed Salahuddin continue to operate freely in Pakistan.
- The UN Security Council as well as the High Commissioner for Human Rights, along with the international community, had strongly condemned the heinous terror attack in Pulwama, J&K in February 2019 that was carried out by Pakistan-based UN proscribed terrorist organization Jaish-e-Mohammad and killed 40 Indian security personnel.
- Since 2004, the Indian security forces have neutralized 1800 Pakistani terrorists in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. In 2017. 128 Pakistan terrorists and in 2018, more than 120 Pakistani terrorists have been neutralized.
- In 2017, 419 terrorists attempted infiltration, out of which 59 were neutralized at the border by the Indian security forces. In 2018, 328 terrorists have attempted infiltration, of which 32 were neutralised at the border. This year, till July 2019, 56 terrorists attempted infiltration.
- Pakistan forces provide support to cross border infiltration, including cover fire. During 2017, there were 971 incidents of unprovoked ceasefire violations along the LOC and the International Boundary by Pakistan forces. In 2018, there were 2140 unprovoked ceasefire violations by Pakistan forces. This year, till July, there have been 1724 cases of unprovoked ceasefire violation by Pakistan side in which 17 Indians have lost their lives.
- The massive scale of the cross border terrorism is evident from the huge cache of arms and ammunition by the Indian security forces. These include – Pika guns (103), Mortars (299), rocket launchers (133), LMGs (13), grenade launchers (24208), AK rifles (220), sniper rifle (59), pistol revolver (2364), grenades (24,208), explosives/ RDX (12,707 kgs), bombs (617) and ammunition (1.03 million). [Figures in brackets are the recoveries made since 2004]. We see no decline in trend.
- Over 5000 security personnel, including of the J&K police have been killed in terrorist incidents since the 1990s.
- There is an absolute restraint in the use of pellet guns.
- 1936 security personnel were injured in various stone pelting incidents in J&K in 2017 and in 2018, 1367 security persons were injured.