Treaty of Lahore - March 9, 1846
The Treaty of Lahore was signed on 9 March 1846 after the First Sikh War. After the defeat of the Sikhs at the Battle of Sobraon the British were able to march into Lahore without any further battles
"Whereas the treaty of amity and concord, which was concluded between the British Government and the late Maharajah Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Lahore, in 1809, was broken by the unprovoked aggression, on the British Provinces, of the Sikh army, in December last; and whereas, on that occasion, by the proclamation, dated 13th December, the territories then in the occupation of the Maharajah of Lahore, on the left or British bank of the river Sutlej, were confiscated and annexed to the British Provinces; and since that time hostile operations have been prosecuted by the two Governments; the one against the other, which have resulted in the occupation of Lahore by the British troops; And whereas it has been determined that, upon certain conditions, peace shall be re-established between the two Governments, the following treaty of peace between the Honourable English East India Company and Maharajah Dalip Singh Bahadoor, and his children, heirs and successors, has been concluded on the part of the Honourable Company by Frederick Currie, Esquire, and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, by virtue of full powers to that effect vested in them by the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General, appointed by the Honourable Company to direct and control all their affairs in the East Indies, and on the part of His Highness Maharajah Dalip Singh by Bhai Ram Singh, Rajah Lal Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chatter Singh Attareewalla, Sardar Runjore Singh Majeethia, Dewan Deena Nath and Fakir Nur-ud-din, vested with full powers and authority on the part of His Highness.
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Dalip Singh, his heirs and successors on the other.
The Maharajah of Lahore renounces for himself, his heirs and successors, all claim to, or connection with, the territories lying to the south of the River Sutlej, and engages never to have any concern with those territories or the inhabitants thereof.
The Maharajah cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, all his forts, territories and rights in the Doab and country, hill and plain, situated between the Rivers Beas and Sutlej.
The British Government having demanded from the Lahore State, an indemnification for the expenses of the war, in addition to the cession of territory described in Article 3, payment of one and a half Crore of Rupees, and the Lahore Government being unable to pay the whole of this sum at this time, or to give security satisfactory to the British Government for its eventual payment, the Maharajah cedes to the Honourable Company, in perpetual sovereignty, as equivalent for one crore of Rupees, all his forts, territories, rights and interests in the hill countries, which are situated between the Rivers Beas and Indus, including the Provinces of Kashmir and Hazara.
The Maharajah will pay to the British Government the sum of 50 lakhs of Rupees on or before the ratification of this Treaty.
The Maharajah engages to disband the mutinous troops of the Lahore Army, taking from them their arms and His Highness agrees to reorganize the Regular or Ain Regiments of Infantry, upon the system, and according to the Regulations as to pay and allowances, observed in the time of the late Maharajah Ranjit Singh. The Maharajah further engages to pay up all arrears to the soldiers that are discharged, under the provisions of this Article.
The Regular Army of the Lahore State shall henceforth be limited to 25 Battalions of Infantry, consisting of 800 bayonets each with twelve thousand Cavalry - this number at no time to be exceeded without the concurrence of the British Government. Should it be necessary at any time - for any special cause, that this force should be increased, the cause shall be fully explained to the British Government, and when the special necessity shall have passed, the regular troops shall be again reduced to the standard specified in the former Clause of this Article.
The Maharajah will surrender to the British Government all the guns, thirty-six in number, which have been pointed against the British troops and which, having been placed on the right Bank of the River Sutlej, were not captured at the battle of Subraon.
The control of the Rivers Beas and Sutlej, with the continuations of the latter river, commonly called the Gharrah and the Panjnad, to the confluence of the Indus at Mithankot and the control of the Indus from Mithankot to the borders of Beloochistan, shall, in respect to tolls and ferries, rest with the British Government. The provisions of this Article shall not interfere with the passage of boats belonging to the Lahore Government on the said rivers, for the purpose of traffic or the conveyance of passengers up and down their course. Regarding the ferries between the countries respectively, at the several ghats of the said rivers, it is agreed that the British Government, after defraying all the expenses of management and establishments, shall account to the Lahore Government for one-half of the net profits of the ferry collections. The provisions of this Article have no reference to the ferries on that part of the River Sutlej which forms the boundary of Bhawalpur and Lahore respectively.
If the British Government should, at any time, desire to pass troops through the territories of His Highness the Maharajah, for the protection of the British territories, or those of their Allies, the British troops shall, on such special occasion, due notice being given, be allowed to pass through the Lahore territories. In such case the officers of the Lahore State will afford facilities in providing supplies and boats for the passage of rivers, and the British Government will pay the full price of all such provisions and boats, and will make fair compensation for all private property that may be damaged. The British Government will, moreover, observe all due consideration to the religious feelings of the inhabitants of those tracts through which the army may pass.
The Maharajah engages never to take or to retain in his service any British subject, nor the subject of any European or American State, without the consent of the British Government.
In consideration of the services rendered by Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu, to the Lahore State, towards procuring the restoration of the relations of amity between the Lahore and British Governments, the Maharajah hereby agrees to recognize the Independent sovereignty of Raja Gulab Singh, in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja Gulab Singh, by separate Agreement between himself and the British Government, with the dependencies thereof, which may have been in the Raja's possession since the time of the late Maharajah Kharak Singh: and the British Government, in consideration of the good conduct of Raja Gulab Singh, also agrees to recognize his independence in such territories, and to admit him to the privileges of a separate Treaty with the British Government.
In the event of any dispute or difference arising between the Lahore State and Raja Gulab Singh, the same shall be referred to the arbitration of the British Government; and by its decision the Maharajah engages to abide.
The limits of the Lahore territories shall not be, at any time, changed without the concurrence of the British Government.
The British Government will not exercise any interference in the internal administration of the Lahore State; but in all cases or questions which may be referred to the British Government, the Governor-General will give the aid of his advice and good offices for the furtherance of the interests of the Lahore Government.
The subjects of either State shall, on visiting the territories of the other, be on the footing of the subjects of the most favoured nation.
This Treaty consisting of sixteen articles, has been this day settled by Frederick Currie, Esq; and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the directions of the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., Governor- General, on the part of the British Government, and by Bhai Ram Singh, Raja Lal Singh, Sardar Tej Singh, Sardar Chattar Singh Attareewalla, Sardar Runjore Singh Majeethia, Dewan Deena Nath, and Fakir Nur-ud-din, on the part of the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh; and the said Treaty has been this day ratified by the seal of the Right Honourable Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., Governor-General, and by that of His Highness Maharajah Dalip Singh.
Done at Lahore, this ninth day of March, in year of Our Lord 1846; corresponding with the, tenth day of Rabbi-ul-awal, 1262 Hijri, and ratified on the same day.
(Sd.) H. Hardinge (L.S.)
(Sd.) Maharajah Dalip Singh (L.S.)
Bhai Ram Singh (L.S.)
Raja Lal Singh (L.S.)
Sardar Tej Singh (L.S.)
Sardar Chattar Singh Attareewalla (L.S.)
Sardar Ranjore Singh Majeethia (L.S.)
Dewan Deena Nath (L.S.)
Fakir Nur-ud-din (L.S.)"
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